What is Motherboard? | Types | definition | Function | System Board | best motherboard

What is A Motherboard?

Motherboard is a "Main Printed Circuit Board (PCB) present in the computer." Which connect different internal components and provides connectors to connect external devices to computer. This is considered to be the most important part of the computer system. If you look at a picture of a motherboard, you'll see a green circuit board with a lot of equipment. 

Some important equipment associated with motherboard include connectors to add Central Processing Unit (CPU), RAM, Hard disk and I/O devices (Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, USB devices etc.). From power supply to communication between other hardware components, the work is motherboard. Even every part of the computer is connected to the motherboard in one way or the other. 

History of Motherboard?

First computer motherboard was called "planar" which was built by IBM for its personal computer, which was created in 1981.

IBM introduced at and Full AT Motherboard in August 1984 and intel introduced ATX Motherboard July 1995.

Functions of Motherboard?

Central Backbone: Often motherboard is called the backbone of a computer. That's why other essential components of the cookie computer (essential components) such as RAM, hard disk, CPU, etc. are all installed in motherboard. That is, motherboard works as a ground for all computer hardware. 

Providing Slots for External Peripherals: Motherboard are used expansion slots to connect external devices to computers. These slots allow you to add extra expansion card (network cards, sound cards, firewire cards, ethernet cards, lane cards, etc.) to the computer. 

Power Supply work in Computer: The motherboard also supplies electricity to various components of the computer. First, electricity reaches the motherboard with the help of power connector, then the various components attached to the motherboard is power supply.

Controlling Data Flow: Motherboard acts as a communication center (communication hub) for all components associated with it. It is responsible for managing information traffic within the computer system. In easy language, all tools are able to receive and send data with the help of motherboard.

BIOS: It also hold BIOS Program, which is located in ROM Chip on the motherboard. These programs are required for the boot process of the computer system.

Types of Motherboard?

With the development of computers, the capacity and size of the motherboard has also changed. We have a variety of motherboard available and all of them are different from each other.

  1. AT Motherboard
  2. ATX Motherboard
  3. Mini ITX Motherboard

So let's know about them in detail...

AT Motherboard

The oldest motherboard used in Computer contains the name of the AT Motherboard, also known as "Full AT". AT means Advance technology, that is, board, power connectors new technology. Each mount of Motherboard had two power connectors of 6 pin. The motherboard was 351mm long and 305mm wide. Because of its size, this motherboard did not fit into the mini desktop. 

It was because of this dimensions of Motherboard that it was difficult to establish a new drives. This motherboard was created by IBM in the 1980s. After which at motherboard and its variants (Baby AT) maintained a good hold in the computer market for nearly several decades. But after 1997 at form factor was suppressed by the ATX. 

ATX Motherboard

Presented by Intel in the nearly 1990s to ATX Motherboard (Advanced technology extended). It was very different from the motherboard of the AT family. Atx was also largely smaller in size (305×204mm) than the old motherboard. This type of motherboard had advance control facilities. In addition, many other important changes were also made in the ATX Motherboard. 

For example, a keyboard connector was added and extra slots were given for various add-ons in the back plats. It could have been power management with the help of BIOS program. It is because of various characteristics that ATX is still used today. ATX family includes Full ATX, Micro ATX and Flex ATX motherboards. 

Mini ITX Motherboard

This type of motherboard is used in computer system small form factor. It was created by VIA Technologies in 2001. the size of the Mini ITX is 6.7 × 6.7 inch, which is less than any other motherboard. This motherboard is the most less power consumption because of its small size and fan-less cooling. It contains only a few USB connectors due to the low size of the motherboard. In addition, the number of PCI slot is the same. Overall it is used entirely in a small size PC. 

In addition, a variety of motherboards are available, but the above mentioned motherboard is mostly used. So so far you have known what computer motherboard is and what works? At the same time, we have given you some of the major types of motherboard information. Let's now know about the names of important parts set up on motherboard and their functions. 

Parts of Motherboard?

Computer motherboard to add all parts of the computer together is like a platform. Below is the name of those parts and their functions.

  • CPU Socket: This is the most important socket on the motherboard, because it fits the CPU (central processing unit) i.e. computer brain.  It is also known as processor, whose job is to processing program instructions and transfer data. 
  • RAM Slots: The location of the computer where RAM (random access memory) is installed. RAM temporarily store dynamic data to increase computer performance. 
  • I/O Ports: These Ports on the motherboard are Input/computer. Output Device work to connect computer. These include ports to connect keyboard, mouse, microphone, speaker, monitor, USB devices, Ethernet network cable, and headphones. 
  • North Bridge Chipset: North Bridge or host bridge is a Microchip directly connected to CPU. Its job is to manage RAM, hard disk and PCI devices. In the new motherboard, it is present below the heat sink. 
  • South-Bridge Chipset: It is also known as IC chip, which is connect from north-bridge. It works to control all input/output functions. 
  • Power Connector: This is a power connector of 20-24 pin. Which is connect by SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply). Its job is to pull Electricity and power supply on the motherboard. You can say, the power supply required to operate the computer system is done by these connector.
  • Expansion Card Slots: Slots on the motherboard where you can install additional cards. This comes in handy when you want to PC upgrade yourself. These card slots are known as AGP slots (Accelerated Graphics Port) and PCI slots. They help you put extra graphic card, audio card, network card, and modem card in your motherboard.
  • IDE Connector: IDE whose full name is Integrated Drive Electronics is responsible for controlling hard disk and optical disc devices within the computer. However, new types of connectors are used in motherboard today, including SATA connector. It is a 7-pin connector compared to 40 pin of IDE.
  • CMOS Battery: It has a full form, Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor battery-powered chip that stores information like date and time and hardware setting. 
  • Heat Sink: A metal device that absorb high temperature when the motherboard is hot. So that the heated parts are not too hot and they are able to work properly. It is installed on the top of the North Bridge in the motherboard. 

Features of Motherboard?

The importance of Motherboard in a computer is more than any other computer hardware. However, each component is important for the computer to function optimally. Let us tell you, which features of the motherboard make it the most important part of the computer. As we told you motherboard is a circuit board on which all important internal computer hardware like - CPU etc. is installed.

A motherboard not only provides a place for those components to sit, but also communicates with the CPU, so that they can share data among themselves. Along with this, there are many slots in the motherboard, which work to connect external devices such as mouse to the computer. With which you give input to the computer and provide output.

The motherboard also serves as the necessary power supply for all the computer components connected to it. That is, from starting the computer to operating it, the utility of the motherboard cannot be denied in all the important tasks. If we consider the CPU as the brain of the computer, then the motherboard is its nervous system.

Motherboard Manufacturers List

  1. Intel
  2. ASUS
  3. Gigabyte
  4. AMD
  5. Acer
  6. MSI
  7. ABIT
  8. AOpen
  9. Biostar

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